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How to build a reliable home on a weak ground

Obviously, the foundation on which the house rests must be firmly established in the ground. However, due to the different nature of the soils, they can not always withstand the weight of the structure. Therefore, in order to build a reliable and strong house, certain rules must be observed
How to build a reliable home on a weak ground
A good site for construction should have a solid foundation. It is possible to build a house with complex hydrogeological conditions, but, as a rule, it costs more. In the case of low load bearing capacity of the soil, it may be necessary to have volumetric deep foundations filled with reinforcement, consolidation and pouring of soil into the bottom of the house, drainage of the area, etc. The need for these measures is determined only by the designer whose participation in the design of the house is mandatory. However, until a hydrogeological survey is done, the soil conditions are difficult to determine.

Often, under new development are allocated inconvenient for construction sites, territories with unknown characteristics of soils, attractive with their low cost. When selecting such a site, one should be especially careful – to find out whether these lands arose as a result of filling the dumps, swamps, etc. It is necessary to consult with a geologist who will clarify the “reputation” of the construction area and tell you which activities may be required. And it is possible that their cost will exceed the amount of savings from buying a cheap plot. It is advisable to make pre-design studies to choose the most economical solution. Moreover, the easier the weight of the structure, the less will be the cost.

Unreliable grounds
Loamy and sandy loaves, as well as clay, can be reliable in dry condition, but can reduce resistance to moisture, swell when freezing. Clay soil – the most difficult for construction: it absorbs water, acquires fluidity, blurs, is very compressed. Soils, prone to deformations, are called soaked. Depending on the type of deformation, there are:

Drawdowns of type I – for them characterized by the compaction of the soil under the influence of external loads. The soil can serve as a support for foundation, although it is necessary to strengthen or strengthen the foundation;
Drawdowns of type II – are deformed even from their own weight. Typically, such soils can not serve as the basis.
Workings, karst – geological conditions, in which in the soil layer there are voids that arose as a result of human activities (mines, catacombs in the extraction of minerals) or water (karst). On such soils there is a danger of creating unexpected dips and horizontal shifts, and on a large area. Data on the availability of jobs and karst in the territories are preserved in geological archives, they are more common in the south and east of Ukraine.

Peatlands – deposits of organic soils with moisture and porosity ten times greater than that of mineral soils. Often in these territories the groundwater level is close to the surface. Peatlands do not have sufficient resistance and the possibility of building on them depends on the depth of the continental soil. Meet in northern Ukraine.

Oil-bearing areas are extremely undesirable for the construction of a geological phenomenon. They occur at a steep slope of more than 15 °, the presence of clay in the composition of the soil, the action of surface and groundwater, load on the slope, the slope of the lower part of the slope, etc. The landslides cover whole zones and expand, if not to take measures to strengthen the slope. They are characteristic of mountainous regions (Carpathians, Crimea), for territories along rivers or hilly terrain.

Bulk and inhomogeneous soils have uneven compressibility or inclusion of different compositions and densities (peat, masses of organic origin, liquefied fine-grained soils – plovuvines). In the course of construction on them there are uneven subsidence of soil. Such bases may have artificial origin (for example, in dumps and gullies) or natural (floating).

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