The best construction works of 2018. Overview
According to the National Encyclopedia of Construction, in the past 2018 and current 2019 years, construction work has become a noticeable tendency. On the construction sites there were excavators without the operator, robots-masons, whole construction robotic complex: from design to construction.According to journalists, robots entered the construction industry, perhaps later. For several decades, they have been used in the manufacture of cars, computers, mobile phones, all kinds of other devices and utensils. But why do well robots still do not build at home in mass order?
The answer to this question is roughly the following: on the one hand, they are already doing this, and on the other hand, the development of intellectual robots involved in the construction is in full swing. Will automata dominate construction sites in the future? – Most likely, the work itself will change the principle of construction and even the construction of buildings of the future.
As a rule, each construction project begins with the work of excavators. Most of the essentially important construction machines, still, are managed by people. However, in recent years there have been 3D excavator control devices that use GPS and a digital terrain model. They show the driver of the excavator the condition of his machine and, if necessary, warn if the depth of the terrain or digging is exceeded.
In addition to 3D control, now there is an autopilot that automatically manages the bucket and barbell, for example, when creating a shallow ground. Automation increases the efficiency of the excavator by 30-45%.
IOSB.BoB: Excavator without operator
The full-fledged IOSB.BoB excavator, created by Fraunhofer’s Institute in Germany, can be even more: BoB means “Excavator without operator”. This machine collects environment data using sensors and can independently navigate through construction, using localization algorithms, mapping, obstacle detection, and traffic planning.
However, the main area of application of this is probably the most intelligent excavator in the world is not construction, but the disposal of hazardous materials so that people do not endanger themselves.
SAM100: The fastest mason in the world
SAM100 is a shorthand from the expression “semi-automatic bricklayer”. This robot is already available in the market and it works perfectly with a brick masonry. The robot created by Construction Robotics costs around US $ 500,000 and processes up to 3,000 bricks per day – six times more than a person. The robot uses rails to move on the lift platform, as well as a laser to detect the movement of builders, so as not to harm anyone.
Unlike masonry people, SAM puts a solution directly on the bricks and always uses the standard amount of solution. Wall data is provided by simple CAD software.
DFAB House: Everything from a robot’s hand
While SAM100 is already removing the masons from the routine of everyday life (or rather, depriving them of their work), researchers from ETH Zurich build a fully-fledged three-story house. It will be built exclusively by robot’s efforts. DFAB House – these are the various newest technologies in the field of digital building combined in one system. This robotic complex itself designs, plans and builds. Thus, not only the benefits of each individual new method, but also their synergy are used.
One of the participants in the robotic DFAB House ensemble is In Situ Fabricator, a robot on a caterpillar that is capable of producing curved shapes from a steel mesh. It has a container with a special concrete mixture to create load-bearing walls. Such a wall is able to withstand a lightweight concrete ceiling, which is also produced by 3D-printing by the efforts of other robots.
The two upper floors are made of wood by two robots in the laboratory. Premises with a unique design are built with the speed of industrial production. The robots cut off the individual parts and bring them to the correct position so that they can be screwed manually.
These and other technologies may in the future become a good alternative to human labor. In any case, robots will be used where human labor is more expensive. However, while robots can still not be compared to either skilled builders or cheap labor from Asia or China. Especially since it is necessary to spend large amounts of money on the depreciation of robots.